This day died Mr. When K.
Diary of Samuel Pepys - Volume 54: June 1667
James II. Pepys had been for neere 40 yeeres so much my particular friend that Mr. The body was brought from Clapham and buried in St. Hickes performed the last sad offices for his friend. Mourning was presented to forty persons, and a large number of rings to relations, godchildren, servants, and friends, also to representatives of the Royal Society, of the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, of the Admiralty, and of the Navy Office.
The books and other collections were left to Magdalene College, Cambridge, but Jackson was to have possession of them during his lifetime. The following are the directions for the disposition of the library, taken from Harl. John Jackson, I do hereby declare, That could I be sure of a constant succession of heirs from my said nephew, qualified like himself for the use of such a library, I should not entertain a thought of its ever being alienated from them.
But this uncertainty considered, with the infinite pains, and time, and cost employed in my collecting, methodising and reducing the same to the state it now is, I cannot but be greatly solicitous that all possible provision should be made for its unalterable preservation and perpetual security against the ordinary fate of such collections falling into the hands of an incompetent heir, and thereby being sold, dissipated, or embezzled.
And since it has pleased God to visit me in a manner that leaves little appearance of being myself restored to a condition of concerting the necessary measures for attaining these ends, I must and do with great confidence rely upon the sincerity and direction of my executor and said nephew for putting in execution the powers given them, by my forementioned will relating hereto, requiring that the same be brought to a determination in twelve months after my decease, and that special regard be had therein to the following particulars which I declare to be my present thoughts and prevailing inclinations in this matter, viz.
That after the death of my said nephew, my said library be placed and for ever settled in one of our universities, and rather in that of Cambridge than Oxford. And if in Trinity, that the said roome be contiguous to, and have communication with, the new library there. That my said library be continued in its present form and no other books mixed therein, save what my nephew may add to theirs of his own collecting, in distinct presses.
That before my said library be put into the possession of either of the said colleges, that college for which it shall be designed, first enter into covenants for performance of the foregoing articles. And that for a yet further security herein, the said two colleges of Trinity and Magdalen have a reciprocal check upon one another; and that college which shall be in present possession of the said library, be subject to an annual visitation from the other, and to the forfeiture thereof to the life, possession, and use of the other, upon conviction of any breach of their said covenants.
The library and the original book-cases were not transferred to Magdalene College until , and there they have been preserved in safety ever since. Rawlinson afterwards obtained them, and they were included in the bequest of his books to the Bodleian Library. Pepys was partial to having his portrait taken, and he sat to Savill, Hales, Lely, and Kneller.
The portrait by Lely is in the Pepysian Library. Of the three portraits by Kneller, one is in the hall of Magdalene College, another at the Royal Society, and the third was lent to the First Special Exhibition of National Portraits, , by the late Mr. Andrew Pepys Cockerell. Several of the portraits have been engraved, but the most interesting of these are those used by Pepys himself as book-plates. These were both engraved by Robert White, and taken from paintings by Kneller.
The church of St. The Earl of Northbrook, First Lord of the Admiralty, consented to unveil the monument, but he was at the last moment prevented by public business from attending. The late Mr. This was dated that day from the Admiralty, and was as follows:. It would be very good if you would say that nothing but very urgent business would have kept me away. I was anxious to give my testimony to the merits of Pepys as an Admiralty official, leaving his literary merits to you. He was concerned with the administration of the Navy from the Restoration to the Revolution, and from as secretary.
I believe his merits to be fairly stated in a contemporary account, which I send. The principal rules and establishments in present use in these offices are well known to have been of his introducing, and most of the officers serving therein since the Restoration, of his bringing-up. He was a most studious promoter and strenuous asserter of order and discipline.
Sobriety, diligence, capacity, loyalty, and subjection to command were essentials required in all whom he advanced. Where any of these were found wanting, no interest or authority was capable of moving him in favour of the highest pretender.
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Discharging his duty to his Prince and country with a religious application and perfect integrity, he feared no one, courted no one, and neglected his own fortune. As regarded his official life, it was unnecessary to dilate upon his peculiar merits, for they all knew how faithful he was in his duties, and they all knew, too, how many faithful officials there were working on in obscurity, who were not only never honoured with a monument but who never expected one.
The few words, Mr. Lowell went on to remark, which he was expected to say upon that occasion, therefore, referred rather to what he believed was the true motive which had brought that assembly together, and that was by no means the character of Pepys either as Clerk of the Acts or as Secretary to the Admiralty. This was not the place in which one could go into a very close examination of the character of Pepys as a private man.
We had no word in England which was equivalent to the French adjective Bourgeois; but, at all events, Samuel Pepys was the most perfect type that ever existed of the class of people whom this word described. He had all its merits as well as many of its defects. Whether Pepys intended this Diary to be afterwards read by the general public or not — and this was a doubtful question when it was considered that he had left, possibly by inadvertence, a key to his cypher behind him — it was certain that he had left with us a most delightful picture, or rather he had left the power in our hands of drawing for ourselves some, of the most delightful pictures, of the time in which he lived.
There was hardly any book which was analogous to it. If one were asked what were the reasons for liking Pepys, it would be found that they were as numerous as the days upon which he made an entry in his Diary, and surely that was sufficient argument in his favour. There was no book, Mr. Montaigne is conscious that we are looking over his shoulder, and Rousseau secretive in comparison with him.
The very fact of that sincerity of the author with himself argued a certain greatness of character. Falstaff had a sense, too, of inadvertent humour, but it was questionable whether Pepys could have had any sense of humour at all, and yet permitted himself to be so delightful. When he told his readers of the landing of Charles II. When, too, he kicked his cookmaid, he admits that he was not sorry for it, but was sorry that the footboy of a worthy knight with whom he was acquainted saw him do it. The lightest part of the Diary was of value, historically, for it enabled one to see London of years ago, and, what was more, to see it with the eager eyes of Pepys.
It was not Pepys the official who had brought that large gathering together that day in honour of his memory: it was Pepys the Diarist. Various attempts appear to have been made to represent this phonetically. Lord Braybrooke, in quoting the entry of death from St. At present there are three pronunciations in use — Peps, which is the most usual; Peeps, which is the received one at Magdalene College, and Peppis, which I learn from Mr.
Walter C. Pepys is the one used by other branches of the family. Pepis ; 2. Pepy ; 3. Pypys ; 4. Pipes ; 5. Peppis ; 6. Peppes ; 7. Pepes ; 8. Peppys ; 9. Peaps ; Pippis ; Peapys ; Peps ; Pypes ; Peypes ; Peeps ; Peepes ; Peyps Walter Pepys adds:—. The present Irish pronunciation of English is really the same as the English pronunciation of the seventeenth century, when the most extensive settlement of Englishmen in Ireland took place, and the Irish always pronounce ea like ai as, He gave him a nate bating — neat beating.
In spite of all the research which has brought to light so many incidents of interest in the life of Samuel Pepys, we cannot but feel how dry these facts are when placed by the side of the living details of the Diary. It is in its pages that the true man is displayed, and it has therefore not been thought necessary here to do more than set down in chronological order such facts as are known of the life outside the Diary. Hill, for having been scandalously over-served with drink ye night before. This was done in the presence of all the Fellows then resident, in Mr.
Michell of Martins in the fields, Spinster. Published October 19tn, 22nd, 29th , and were married by Richard Sherwin Esqr one of the justices of the Peace of the Cittie and Lyberties of Westm. December 1st. Signed Ri. I went this evening to London, to carry Mr. Pepys and Mr. Offley, did, in the first place, take into consideration what related personally to Mr. Information being given to the House that they had received an account from a person of quality, that he saw an Altar with a Crucifix upon it, in the house of Mr. Pepys; Mr. Pepys, standing up in his place, did heartily and flatly deny that he ever had any Altar or Crucifix, or the image or picture of any Saint whatsoever in his house, from the top to the bottom of it; and the Members being called upon to name the person that gave them the information, they were unwilling to declare it without the order of the House; which, being made, they named the Earl of Shaftesbury; and the House being also informed that Sir J.
Banks did likewise see the Altar, he was ordered to attend the Bar of the House, to declare what he knew of this matter. Garraway do attend Lord Shaftesbury on the like occasion, and receive what information his Lordship, can give on this matter. Coventry reports that they attended the Earl of Shaftesbury, and received from him the account which they had put in writing. The Earl of Shaftesbury denieth that he ever saw an Altar in Mr. When his Lordship was asked the time, he said it was before the burning of the Office of the Navy.
Being asked concerning the manner, he said he could not remember whether it were painted or carved, or in what manner the thing was; and that his memory was so very imperfect in it, that if he were upon his oath he could give no testimony. Pepys, and whether he used to have recourse to him to his house and had ever seen there any Altar or Crucifix, or whether he knew of his being a Papist, or Popishly inclined.
Sir J. Banks said that he had known and had been acquainted with Mr. Pepys several years, and had often visited him and conversed with him at the Navy Office, and at his house there upon several occasions, and that he never saw in his house there any Altar or Crucifix, and that he does not believe him to be a Papist, or that way inclined in the least, nor had any reason or ground to think or believe it.
He was appointed Ambassador to Turkey in , and died at Belgrade in July of that year. Blessed be God, at the end of the last year I was in very good health, without any sense of my old pain, but upon taking of cold. My wife. Thus since we have been in the habit of putting the two dates for the months of January and February and March 1 to 24 — in all years previous to Practically, however, many persons considered the year to commence with January 1st, as it will be seen Pepys did.
The fiscal year has not been altered; and the national accounts are still reckoned from old Lady Day, which falls on the 6th of April. See March 26th below. Although not suffering from this cause again until the end of his life, there are frequent references in the Diary to pain whenever he caught cold. The condition of the State was thus; viz. The officers of the Army all forced to yield.
Lawson 2 lies still in the river, and Monk 3 is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert is not yet come into the Parliament, nor is it expected that he will without being forced to it. The new Common Council of the City do speak very high; and had sent to Monk their sword-bearer, to acquaint him with their desires for a free and full Parliament, which is at present the desires, and the hopes, and expectation of all. Twenty-two of the old secluded members 4 having been at the House-door the last week to demand entrance, but it was denied them; and it is believed that [neither] they nor the people will be satisfied till the House be filled.
My own private condition very handsome, and esteemed rich, but indeed very poor; besides my goods of my house, and my office, which at present is somewhat uncertain. Downing master of my office. The title Lord was not his by right, but it was frequently given to the republican officers. In he was appointed captain of horse under Fairfax, and acted as major-general to Cromwell in during the war in Scotland. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to Cromwell, for which the Protector deprived him of his commission. The Commons cashiered Lambert, Desborough, and other officers, October 12th, , but Lambert retaliated by thrusting out the Commons, and set out to meet Monk.
His men fell away from him, and he was sent to the Tower, March 3rd, , but escaped. In he was tried on a charge of high treason and condemned, but his life was spared. It is generally stated that he passed the remainder of his life in the island of Guernsey, but this is proved to be incorrect by a MS. Nicholas, at the entrance of Plymouth harbour]. Though a republican, he readily closed with the design of restoring the King.
He was mortally wounded in the action with the Dutch off Harwich, June, He is supposed to have been born in August, He and his parents went to New England in , and he was the second graduate of Harvard College. Anthony a Wood who incorrectly describes him as the son of Dr. Calybute Downing, vicar of Hackney calls Downing a sider with all times and changes: skilled in the common cant, and a preacher occasionally.
He was sent by Cromwell to Holland in , as resident there. Afterwards, becoming Secretary to the Treasury and Commissioner of the Customs, he was in created a Baronet of East Hatley, in Cambridgeshire, and was again sent Ambassador to Holland. His grandson of the same name, who died in , was the founder of Downing College, Cambridge. The title became extinct in , upon the decease of Sir John Gerrard Downing, the last heir-male of the family. He died in July, This morning we living lately in the garret, I rose, put on my suit with great skirts, having not lately worn any other, clothes but them.
Went to Mr. Dined at home in the garret, where my wife dressed the remains of a turkey, and in the doing of it she burned her hand. Turner 2 and Madam Morrice, and supt with us. After that my wife and I went home with them, and so to our own home. He had continued to read the Liturgy at the chapel at Exeter House when the Parliament was most predominant, for which Cromwell often rebuked him. Evelyn relates that on Christmas Day, , the chapel was surrounded with soldiers, and the congregation taken prisoners, he and his wife being among them.
There are several notices of Dr. When he obtained the mastership of St. Tuckney, he allowed that Nonconformist divine a handsome annuity during his life. He was a great controversialist, and a man of great reading. He died July 6th, , aged seventy-one. She died In the morning before I went forth old East brought me a dozen of bottles of sack, and I gave him a shilling for his pains.
Then I went to Mr. Sheply, 1 who was drawing of sack in the wine cellar to send to other places as a gift from my Lord, and told me that my Lord had given him order to give me the dozen of bottles. Thence I went to the Temple to speak with Mr. Andrewes for my own use, and so went to my office, where there was nothing to do.
Then I walked a great while in Westminster Hall, where I heard that Lambert was coming up to London; that my Lord Fairfax 4 was in the head of the Irish brigade, but it was not certain what he would declare for. The House was today upon finishing the act for the Council of State, which they did; and for the indemnity to the soldiers; and were to sit again thereupon in the afternoon. Great talk that many places have declared for a free Parliament; and it is believed that they will be forced to fill up the House with the old members. From the Hall I called at home, and so went to Mr.
Moore and I and another gentleman went out and drank a cup of ale together in the new market, and there I eat some bread and cheese for my dinner. After that Mr. Calthrop, but failed again of finding him, so returned to Mr. Jemimah 5 home, and there she taught me how to play at cribbage. Then I went home, and finding my wife gone to see Mrs.
So to bed, and my wife had a very bad night of it through wind and cold. He died in action against the Dutch in Southwold Bay, May 28th, He sat for Brackley in the Long Parliament. He died December 12th, After the Restoration, he retired to his country seat, where he lived in private till his death, It is believed that they have never been printed. It has recently been pointed out to me, that the lines were not originally composed by Fairfax, being only a poor translation of the spirited lines of Statius Sylvarum lib.
These verses were first applied by the President de Thou to the massacre of St. Bartholomew, ; and in our day, by Mr. Jemimah, or Mrs. Jem, was Jemima, eldest daughter of Sir Edward Montagu. At this time she and her sister, Mrs. It was most probably the house of William Joyce, who kept a place of entertainment at Westminster see Jan. I went out in the morning, it being a great frost, and walked to Mrs. Calthrop, and walked in his chamber an hour, but could not see him, so went to Westminster, where I found soldiers in my office to receive money, and paid it them.
At noon went home, where Mrs. Jem, her maid, Mr. Sheply, Hawly, and Moore dined with me on a piece of beef and cabbage, and a collar of brawn. We then fell to cards till dark, and then I went home with Mrs. Jem, and meeting Mr. Hawly got him to bear me company to Chancery Lane, where I spoke with Mr.
Calthrop, he told me that Sir James Calthrop was lately dead, but that he would write to his Lady, that the money may be speedily paid. Thence back to White Hall, where I understood that the Parliament had passed the act for indemnity to the soldiers and officers that would come in, in so many days, and that my Lord Lambert should have benefit of the said act. They had also voted that all vacancies in the House, by the death of any of the old members, shall be filled up; but those that are living shall not be called in. Thence I went home, and there found Mr. Hunt and his wife, and Mr. Hawly, who sat with me till ten at night at cards, and so broke up and to bed.
Early came Mr. It snowed hard all this morning, and was very cold, and my nose was much swelled with cold. Some say that Lambert must of necessity yield up; others, that he is very strong, and that the Fifth-monarchy-men [will] stick to him, if he declares for a free Parliament. Chillington was sent yesterday to him with the vote of pardon and indemnity from the Parliament.
Vines, and could not get him along with me. I was vext at this, and went and walked in the Hall, where I heard that the Parliament spent this day in fasting and prayer; and in the afternoon came letters from the North, that brought certain news that my Lord Lambent his forces were all forsaking him, and that he was left with only fifty horse, and that he did now declare for the Parliament himself; and that my Lord Fairfax did also rest satisfied, and had laid down his arms, and that what he had done was only to secure the country against my Lord Lambert his raising of money, and free quarter.
Then I spent a little time with G. Hawly at cards till ten at night, and was much made of by them. Home and so to bed, but much troubled with my nose, which was much swelled. Hinchinbroke House, so often mentioned in the Diary, stood about half a mile to the westward of the town of Huntingdon. It was erected late in the reign of Elizabeth, by Sir Henry Cromwell, on the site of a Benedictine nunnery, granted at the Dissolution, with all its appurtenances, to his father, Richard Williams, who had assumed the name of Cromwell, and whose grandson, Sir Oliver, was the uncle and godfather of the Protector.
The knight, who was renowned for, his hospitality, had the honour of entertaining King James at Hinchinbroke, but, getting into pecuniary difficulties, was obliged to sell his estates, which were conveyed, July 28th, , to Sir Sidney Montagu of Barnwell, father of the first Earl of Sandwich, in whose descendant they are still vested.
On the morning of the 22nd January, , during the minority of the seventh Earl, Hinchinbroke was almost entirely destroyed by fire, but the pictures and furniture were mostly saved, and the house has been rebuilt in the Elizabethan style, and the interior greatly improved, under the direction of Edward Blore, Esq. Rimbault, p. I went to my office, where the money was again expected from the Excise office, but none brought, but was promised to be sent this afternoon.
I dined with Mr. And so to my office again; where the Excise money was brought, and some of it told to soldiers till it was dark. Then my wife and I, it being a great frost, went to Mrs. Fage, to consult concerning my nose, who told me it was nothing but cold, and after that we did discourse concerning public business; and he told me it is true the City had not time enough to do much, but they are resolved to shake off the soldiers; and that unless there be a free Parliament chosen, he did believe there are half the Common Council will not levy any money by order of this Parliament.
Ramsey and her grandchild, a pretty girl, and staid a while and talked with them and my mother, and then took my leave, only heard of an invitation to go to dinner tomorrow to my cosen Thomas Pepys. Jem, and took my wife and Mrs. Sheply, and went home. This morning Mr. Sheply and I did eat our breakfast at Mrs. After dinner I took my leave, leaving my wife with my cozen Stradwick, 1 and went to Westminster to Mr.
Vines, where George and I fiddled a good while, Dick and his wife who was lately brought to bed and her sister being there, but Mr. Hudson not coming according to his promise, I went away, and calling at my house on the wench, I took her and the lanthorn with me to my cosen Stradwick, where, after a good supper, there being there my father, mother, brothers, and sister, my cosen Scott and his wife, Mr.
Drawwater and his wife, and her brother, Mr. Stradwick, we had a brave cake brought us, and in the choosing, Pall was Queen and Mr. Stradwick was King. After that my wife and I bid adieu and came home, it being still a great frost. At my office as I was receiving money of the probate of wills, in came Mrs.
Turner, Theoph. Hawly came after, and I got a dish of steaks and a rabbit for them, while they were playing a game or two at cards. In the middle of our dinner a messenger from Mr. Downing came to fetch me to him, so leaving Mr. Hawly there, I went and was forced to stay till night in expectation of the French Embassador, who at last came, and I had a great deal of good discourse with one of his gentlemen concerning the reason of the difference between the zeal of the French and the Spaniard.
After he was gone I went home, and found my friends still at cards, and after that I went along with them to Dr. Whores sending my wife to Mrs. May, Harding, and Mallard. Afterwards I put my friends into a coach, and went to Mrs. So home and to bed. In the morning I went to Mr. Sheply, and after supper went home together. Here I heard of the death of Mr. Palmer, and that he was to be buried at Westminster tomorrow.
I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to — let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr.
Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee—House, and gave 18d. Thence to Mrs. Vane 2 was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby, as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night.
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Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that tomorrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble. He was executed in , on a charge of conspiring the death of Charles I. Went out early, and in my way met with Greatorex, 1 and at an alehouse he showed me the first sphere of wire that ever he made, and indeed it was very pleasant; thence to Mr.
Thence Jenings and I into London it being through heat of the sun a great thaw and dirty to show our bills of return, and coming back drank a pint of wine at the Star in Cheapside. So to Westminster, overtaking Captain Okeshott in his silk cloak, whose sword got hold of many people in walking. Thence to the Coffee-house, where were a great confluence of gentlemen; viz. Harrington, Poultny, chairman, Gold, Dr. So home to bed. He is frequently mentioned by Pepys.
He signed the death warrant of Charles I. Walgrave and Mr. Edward, I returned to my father, and taking him from W. I went towards London, and in my way went in to see Crowly, who was now grown a very great loon and very tame. Thence to Mr. From home I went to see Mrs. Jem, who was in bed, and now granted to have the small-pox. Back again, and went to the Coffee-house, but tarried not, and so home. Sheply and a seaman, and so to my office, where Captain Holland came to see me, and appointed a meeting in the afternoon. Billingsly and Newman, a barber, where we were very merry, and had the young man that plays so well on the Welsh harp.
Billingsly paid for all. Thence home, and finding my letters this day not gone by the carrier I new sealed them, but my brother Tom coming we fell into discourse about my intention to feast the Joyces. Coming in the morning to my office, I met with Mr. Fage and took him to the Swan? Thence to my office, where nothing to do. Pinkney, who invited me to their feast at his Hall the next Monday. Thence I went home and took my wife and dined at Mr. Wades, and after that we went and visited Catan. From thence home again, and my wife was very unwilling to let me go forth, but with some discontent would go out if I did, and I going forth towards Whitehall, I saw she followed me, and so I staid and took her round through Whitehall, and so carried her home angry.
Thence I went to Mrs. Jem, and found her up and merry, and that it did not prove the small-pox, but only the swine-pox; so I played a game or two at cards with her. And so to Mr. Vines, where he and I and Mr. After that I went home and found my wife gone abroad to Mr. Nothing to do at our office. They staid with me all the afternoon, and went hence in the evening. Then I went with my wife, and left her at market, and went myself to the Coffee-house, and heard exceeding good argument against Mr.
Home, and wrote to Hinchinbroke, and sent that and my other letter that missed of going on Thursday last. So to bed. Having been exceedingly disturbed in the night with the barking of a dog of one of our neighbours that I could not sleep for an hour or two, I slept late, and then in the morning took physic, and so staid within all day.
At noon my brother John came to me, and I corrected as well as I could his Greek speech to say the Apposition, though I believe he himself was as well able to do it as myself. After that we went to read in the great Officiale about the blessing of bells in the Church of Rome. It being a cold day and a great snow my physic did not work so well as it should have done. In the morning I went up to Mr. Edward to Twickenham, and likewise did talk to me concerning things of state; and expressed his mind how just it was that the secluded members should come to sit again.
I went from thence, and in my way went into an alehouse and drank my morning draft with Matthew Andrews and two or three more of his friends, coachmen. And of one of them I did hire a coach to carry us tomorrow to Twickenham. From thence to my office, where nothing to do; but Mr. Downing he came and found me all alone; and did mention to me his going back into Holland, and did ask me whether I would go or no, but gave me little encouragement, but bid me consider of it; and asked me whether I did not think that Mr. Hawly could perform the work of my office alone or no. I confess I was at a great loss, all the day after, to bethink myself how to carry this business.
At noon, Harry Ethall came to me and went along with Mr. Maylard by coach as far as Salsbury Court, and there we set him down, and we went to the Clerks, where we came a little too late, but in a closet we had a very good dinner by Mr. After that Sheply, Harrison and myself, we went towards Westminster on foot, and at the Golden Lion, near Charing Cross, we went in and drank a pint of wine, and so parted, and thence home, where I found my wife and maid a-washing. Early I went to Mr. Edward money to give the servants, I took him into the coach that waited for us and carried him to my house, where the coach waited for me while I and the child went to Westminster Hall, and bought him some pictures.
In the Hall I met Mr. Thence the child and I to the coach, where my wife was ready, and so we went towards Twickenham. In our way, at Kensington we understood how that my Lord Chesterfield had killed another gentleman about half an hour before, and was fled. After that we parted and went homewards, it being market day at Brainford [Brentford]. I set my wife down and went with the coach to Mr. Moore and Mrs.
Jem, he having told me the reason of his melancholy was some unkindness from her after so great expressions of love, and how he had spoke to her friends and had their consent, and that he would desire me to take an occasion of speaking with her, but by no means not to heighten her discontent or distaste whatever it be, but to make it up if I can.
But he being out of doors, I went away and went to see Mrs.
The Amazing Diary of Samuel Pepys, Esq.
Jem, who was now very well again, and after a game or two at cards, I left her. So I went to the Coffee Club, and heard very good discourse; it was in answer to Mr. Thence I went to Westminster, and met Shaw and Washington, who told me how this day Sydenham 2 was voted out of the House for sitting any more this Parliament, and that Salloway was voted out likewise and sent to the Tower, during the pleasure of the House. Thence I went home, it being late and my wife in bed.
The name of the unfortunate gentleman who fell on this occasion was Woolly. He acted a busy part in the eventful times in which he lived, and was remarkable for his steady adherence to the Stuarts. The Earl of Chesterfield and Dr. They fought a duel on the backside of Mr.
The Earl wounded him in two places, and would fain have then ended, but the stubbornness and pride of heart of Mr. Woolly would not give over, and the next pass [he] was killed on the spot. The Earl fled to Chelsea, and there took water and escaped. The jury found it chance-medley. He was the elder brother of the celebrated physician of that name. His succession to his father as Protector was universally accepted at first, but the army soon began to murmur because he was not a general.
Between the dissensions of various parties he fell, and the country was left in a state of anarchy: He went abroad early in the summer of , and lived abroad for some years, returning to England in After his fall he bore the name of John Clarke. Died at Cheshunt, July 12th, Sheply brought me letters from the carrier and so I went home. Talbot, Adams, Pinkny and his son, but his son did not come. Here we were very merry, and while I was here Mr. Fuller came thither and staid a little, while.
Harrison, and by chance seeing Mr. Butler 1 coming by I called him in and so we sat drinking a bottle of wine till night. Robert Latham and William Matthews, 11 vols. Latham and Matthews, 1:xxxiv. Latham and Matthews, 1:cxxxii and cvii. Latham and Matthews , Jan. Brewer, , pp. Latham and Matthews, 1:lxviii. Brewer, , VII: xi-xxxv. Brewer, , p. On the Selden ballads, see Leba M. Wood preserved his broadside ballad collection as a collection of whole artifacts.
Instead of cutting apart his broadsides and pasting them into albums, Wood folded the broadsides and placed them in select piles with the intent of having them stitched together into volumes backed by cardboard inevitable trimming of the edges of the ballads nevertheless occurred in the course of their binding. Wheatley London: Bickers, , Evelyn, John. Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn. William Bray. New edn. London: Bickers, David McKitterick. Wolfeboro, NH: D. Brewer, But he had even greater reason for disliking his neighbour as it seems Penn did not wish Pepys to rise in the Navy Board.
Penn would have been considerably wealthier than Pepys owing to his successful career in the navy. Cromwell rewarded him for his service with expropriated MacCarthy lands in Ireland, from which, as an absentee landlord, he extracted a considerable income. Indeed Penn lent monies to the king which were later repaid to his son in the form of the extensive land grants in America — which became Pennsylvania.
The young Penn irritated his father by becoming a Quaker. On the night of Sept 2nd, the Great Fire of London broke out.
The most famous account of this disaster, which left acres of the city in smouldering ruins, comes from Pepys. Samuel and Elizabeth were planning a dinner party for the next day and the maids were up very late preparing the food. The next morning the fire had grown; Jane told him some houses were burning. Pepys set off to inspect the damage to his beloved city; one of his first thoughts being for the safety of one of his woman friends who lived on London Bridge.
As he walked towards the fire the scale of the disaster emerged:. And flinging into the river or bringing them in lighters that lay off. Poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats or clambering from one pair of stair by the waterside to another.
And among other things, the poor pigeons I perceive were loath to leave their houses, but hovered about the windows and balconies till they were some of them burned their wings, and fell down. Pepys, however, was more than just an observing flaneur ; he wanted action taken to save the city:.
It does not seem to have occurred to Pepys to cancel his dinner party, which went ahead; the guests, he said, were as merry as they could be under the circumstances. Later he left them with Elizabeth and went back into the city to inspect the damage. Later still he meet them again and the group walked together through the burning city. When they could bear the heat no longer they repaired to an alehouse on the banks of the river where they watched the fire grow. When he returned home his mind turned to practical considerations; this time it was his own wellbeing, rather than that of the city, which was uppermost in his mind.
And got my bags of gold into my office ready to carry away. In the event the fire did not reach his house in Seething lane. Within a few days the disruption to their lives was at an end:. Home to bed and find, to my infinite joy. Many rooms clean, and myself and my wife lie in our chamber again. But much terrified in the nights nowadays, with dreams of fire and falling down of houses. Pepys rose from obscurity and in so doing became allied with the restored Stuarts in what was to become a dangerous and factional period. His kinsman Montagu served Cromwell and the commonwealth well but, as the s advanced, a change in mood occurred.
Many began to regret the beheading of the king; it was not clear who would lead after Cromwell. His son was unimpressive and parliament divided; the country was exposed to the danger of political incoherence and a consequent inability to act decisively. Powerful elements began to be attracted to the idea of restoring a single centre of political authority, to a restoration of the monarchy.
From the perspective of the twenty-first century the utility of hereditary monarchy may not be obvious; in fact it had crucial advantages over other systems, stability being the chief of them. Montagu, motivated by a wish for political calm, was one of the first to switch sides.
He organised the return of the heir from Holland by ship. Pepys was always loyal to the crown, accepting royalty as a rational political institution. He enjoyed regal pomp and ceremony, but at the same time was a moderniser with little attraction to medieval excesses; he wanted the monarchy to function efficiently in the interests of the complex polity that was late seventeenth century England.
Charles, in some ways an old-style king, often disappointed Pepys in this respect. In a revealing decision, he revived the ceremony of the king touching those with scrofula in order to heal them. The following morning the diarist was a little the worse for wear:. So rise and went out with Mr Creed to drink our morning draught, which he did give me in chocolate to settle my stomach. Despite his approval of the crown as a political institution, he was regularly irritated by aspects of court life:. To the Tennice Court after I had spent a little time in Westminster Hall, thinking to have met with Mrs Lane, but I could not and am glad of it and there saw the King play at tennis and others.
There was also something in the way Charles related to his mistresses, particularly Mrs Castlemaine — whom Pepys himself found more than a little attractive — which provoked his disapproval. He was not at all hostile to sexual adventure but, like a good bourgeois, wanted things properly compartmentalised. He became distressed when the love life of the royals, or of courtiers, interfered with business. When Lord Sandwich moved in with his beautiful and witty mistress, Pepys was most concerned and wrote his patron a diplomatic letter advising of the dangers. There may have been serious grounds for his concern in relation to Mrs Castlemaine and the king: they were said to have spent the evening the Dutch sailed up the Medway, threatening London, in pursuit of a moth.
On the other hand envy may have played a role. Notwithstanding the excesses of royal amusement, Charles was generally an efficient monarch and based his rule on a successful alliance with the Anglican church. The Restoration did not, however, mean that the poison of fanaticism had been completely drained from English political life. There was no reign of terror against those who had supported the beheading of his father; only a handful of the leading regicides were executed. Very few of the royalists who lost property following their defeat in the civil war had their lands restored.
The hopes of the dispossessed in Gaelic and royalist Ireland were comprehensively dashed. Jonathan Swift felt the irony:. The Catholics of Ireland … lost their estates for fighting in defence of their King. It was an irony which did not bother the Stuarts: Charles and his brother James were never prepared to put restitution, particularly restitution in Ireland, before their political interests in England. For the Irish, it was an early lesson in the unreliability of allies, a lesson, it has to be said, which was never fully mastered.
The growing strength of exclusivist Protestantism in parliament and its opposition to Charles meant that he had to attempt to rule without parliament if he was to avoid endorsing anti-Catholic discriminatory measures. Pepys disapproved of the attempt to exclude parliament, possibly not realising the full danger represented by Shaftesbury and his ilk. In June he expressed delight that the king had decided to call a Parliament:. This was a prophetic observation. The first of many challenges to Pepys came from an inquisitorial parliament which charged him and his colleagues with incompetence in their conduct of the Navy Board.
His foes were formidable and presented their case in considerable detail. However his work was not in vain. In an extraordinary performance over three hours Pepys, exhibiting great mastery of detail and clarity of thought, demolished every charge brought against him. Judging from his performance these preparatory measures did no great harm.
Even his defeated enemies were impressed and the king, who would have been prepared to throw him to the dogs, was delighted. At this time Pepys did have other worries; in particular he feared he might be going blind and in an effort to ease the strain on his eyes ceased the diary. His fears were misplaced; he did not go blind and his eyes served him well for the remainder of his life. The Duke of York granted him leave and he went on a long holiday to France with Elizabeth, who was delighted to show him the scenes of her girlhood.
However, shortly after they returned she contracted a fever and died, leaving Pepys in grief. The next major assault came in Shaftesbury organised a sophisticated scheme, based on bribed perjurers, to accuse Pepys of being Catholic and of having murdered the respected magistrate Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey as part of a Catholic plot. Pepys however had a solid alibi; he was in Newmarket with the king at the time of the alleged murder.
Switching tack, Shaftesbury tried to destroy Pepys through falsely charging his clerk, Samuel Atkins, with having committed the murder. The idea was to get Atkins to incriminate Pepys but Atkins held firm and Pepys applied himself to proving that Atkins could not have been guilty, becoming, in the process, an effective detective in his own cause, a talent which would ensure his own eventual survival.
Titus Oates and other paid or demented liars were at this time filling the ears of all and sundry with details of a popish plot to kill Charles in order to see the Catholic Duke of York on the throne. Some 35 people were falsely accused and executed and hundreds more imprisoned.
Shaftesbury ensured that Pepys was included with the accused. This was a serious business and Pepys was locked up in the Tower of London awaiting the outcome of his trial, which was expected to end in his execution. In an extraordinary exercise of focused willpower Pepys began to organise his defence from the Tower. It quickly became clear that the only hope was to discredit Scott, not an easy matter.
Balty received numerous and detailed instructions from Pepys as to what enquiries he was to make. Eventually, after months of work and the expending of great sums of money, Pepys was in a position to counter-attack. When the array of sworn witnesses against Scott available to Pepys became known, he simply fled the country. With this event and the withdrawal by his old butler of the lies he had been paid to tell, the prosecution case collapsed and by July Pepys was once more a free man.
Related Diary of Samuel Pepys — Volume 54: June 1667
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